The Annenberg Inclusion Initiative examines the proportion of characters from different racial/ethnic groups on screen in entertainment. Routinely, we find an on-screen underrepresentation of characters who are Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian or Asian American, Native American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Middle Eastern, or from other racial/ethnic backgrounds. In addition to prevalence of underrepresented characters, other attributes are analyzed, including parental and relational status and hypersexualization.
View our reports on race/ethnicity on screen in entertainment below. For information on race/ethnicity behind-the-scenes in entertainment, visit the Behind the Scenes tab.
Race/Ethnicity in Music
- Our third annual report on gender and race/ethnicity across 800 popular songs from 2012 to 2019 and 8 years of Grammy nominations in select categories.
View previous reports:
- Inclusion in the Recording Studio? (2019)--includes an analysis of qualitative interviews with 75 female songwriters and producers.
- Inclusion in the Recording Studio? (2018)
Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film
- A research brief on gender and race/ethnicity among leading characters in the 100 top films each year from 2007 to 2019.
View previous briefs:
- The report examines top-grossing films to assess the prevalence and portrayal of Latinos on screen and as directors, producers, and casting directors. The study also includes a qualitative analysis on the presentation of Latino characters.
- Annual report on gender, race/ethnicity, LGBT status, and disability in film. Includes data on representation and employment patterns in popular films (2007-2019).
View previous reports:
- Inequality in 1,200 Popular Films (2019)
- Inequality in 1,100 Popular Films (2018)
- Inequality in 900 Popular Films (2016)
- Inequality in 800 Popular Films (2015)
- Inequality in 700 Popular Films (2014)
- Race/Ethnicity in 600 Popular Films (2013)
- Race/Ethnicity in 500 Popular Films (2012)
- Black Characters in Popular Film (2007-2008)
Inclusion in Netflix Series & Films
- The Initiative analyzed Netflix’s U.S. original live-action films (126) and series (180) released in 2018 and 2019. The study examined on-screen inclusion across gender, race/ethnicity, LGBTQ+ and disability. Behind the camera, gender and race/ethnicity of key personnel were assessed. Full report.
Economic Performance of Films
- The report examines the economic performance of 1,200 top films from 2007 to 2018, using more than a dozen production, distribution, and exhibition factors that could influence economic performance domestically and internationally. A supplemental analysis of films with women of color in leading roles. The report was supported by ReFrame.
Reports on Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film, TV, Digital (The CARD Report)
- Report examines film, television, and digital content. The study ranks companies based on inclusivity on screen and behind-the camera.
Race/Ethnicity and Computer Science On-Screen in Television and Film
- An investigation of how often computer science is depicted in popular films and five samples of television, and the prevalence and portrayal of individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups performing computer science. Report prepared for the Google CS in Media Team.
Race/Ethnicity of Film Critics
- An examination of gender and race/ethnicity of film reviewers across the top 100 films each year from 2015-2017.
View previous reports