Race/Ethnicity

The Annenberg Inclusion Initiative examines the proportion of characters from different racial/ethnic groups on screen in entertainment. Routinely, we find an on-screen underrepresentation of characters who are Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian or Asian American, Native American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Middle Eastern, or from other racial/ethnic backgrounds. In addition to prevalence of underrepresented characters, other attributes are analyzed, including parental and relational status and hypersexualization.

View our reports on race/ethnicity on screen in entertainment below. For information on race/ethnicity behind-the-scenes in entertainment, visit the Behind the Scenes tab.

Race/Ethnicity in Music

2020: Inclusion in the Recording Studio?

  • Our third annual report on gender and race/ethnicity across 800 popular songs from 2012 to 2019 and 8 years of Grammy nominations in select categories.

View previous reports:

Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film

2020: Research Brief: Inequality in 1,300 Popular Films

  • A research brief on gender and race/ethnicity among leading characters in the 100 top films each year from 2007 to 2019.

View previous briefs:

2019: Latinos in Film: Erasure On Screen and Behind the Camera Across 1,200 Popular Movies

  • The report examines top-grossing films to assess the prevalence and portrayal of Latinos on screen and as directors, producers, and casting directors. The study also includes a qualitative analysis on the presentation of Latino characters.

2019: Inequality in 1,200 Popular Films

  • Annual report on gender, race/ethnicity, LGBT status, and disability in film. Includes data on representation, hypersexualization, and employment patterns in popular films (2007-2018).

View previous reports:

Economic Performance of Films

NEW! 2020: The Ticket to Inclusion: Gender & Race/Ethnicity of Leads and Financial Performance Across 1,200 Popular Films

  • The report examines the economic performance of 1,200 top films from 2007 to 2018, using more than a dozen production, distribution, and exhibition factors that could influence economic performance domestically and internationally. A supplemental analysis of films with women of color in leading roles. The report was supported by ReFrame.

Reports on Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film, TV, Digital (The CARD Report)

2014-15: PDF icon Inclusion or Invisibility? Comprehensive Annenberg Report on Diversity (CARD)  PDF icon (Full_Report)

  • Report examines film, television, and digital content. The study ranks companies based on inclusivity on screen and behind-the camera.

Race/Ethnicity and Computer Science On-Screen in Television and Film

2017: Cracking the Code: The Prevalence and Nature of Computer Science Depictions in Media

  • An investigation of how often computer science is depicted in popular films and five samples of television, and the prevalence and portrayal of individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups performing computer science. Report prepared for the Google CS in Media Team.

Race/Ethnicity of Film Critics

2018: Critic's Choice 2: Gender and Race/Ethnicity of Film Reviewers Across 300 Top Films from 2015-2017

  • An examination of gender and race/ethnicity of film reviewers across the top 100 films each year from 2015-2017.

View previous reports