The Annenberg Inclusion Initiative examines the proportion of characters from different racial/ethnic groups on screen in entertainment. Routinely, we find an on-screen underrepresentation of characters who are Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian or Asian American, Native American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Middle Eastern, or from other racial/ethnic backgrounds. In addition to prevalence of underrepresented characters, other attributes are analyzed, including parental and relational status and hypersexualization.

View our reports on race/ethnicity on screen in entertainment below. For information on race/ethnicity behind-the-scenes in entertainment, visit the Behind the Scenes tab.

Race/Ethnicity in Music

2019: Inclusion in the Recording Studio?

  • Our second annual report on gender and race/ethnicity across 700 popular songs from 2012 to 2018. This year, we also feature qualitative interviews with 75 female songwriters and producers to explore the barriers facing women in the industry.

View previous reports:

Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film

2019: Latinos in Film: Erasure On Screen and Behind the Camera Across 1,200 Popular Movies

  • The report examines top-grossing films to assess the prevalence and portrayal of Latinos on screen and as directors, producers, and casting directors. The study also includes a qualitative analysis on the presentation of Latino characters.

2019: Inequality in 1,200 Popular Films

  • A research brief on gender and race/ethnicity among leading characters in the 100 top films each year from 2007 to 2018.

2018: Inequality in 1,100 Popular Films

  • Annual report on gender, race/ethnicity, LGBT status, and disability in film. Includes data on representation, hypersexualization, and employment patterns in popular films (2007-2017).

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Reports on Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film, TV, Digital (The CARD Report)

2014-15: PDF iconInclusion or Invisibility? Comprehensive Annenberg Report on Diversity (CARD)  PDF icon(Full_Report)

  • Report examines film, television, and digital content. The study ranks companies based on inclusivity on screen and behind-the camera.

Race/Ethnicity and Computer Science On-Screen in Television and Film

2017: Cracking the Code: The Prevalence and Nature of Computer Science Depictions in Media

  • An investigation of how often computer science is depicted in popular films and five samples of television, and the prevalence and portrayal of individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups performing computer science. Report prepared for the Google CS in Media Team.

Race/Ethnicity of Film Critics

2018: Critic's Choice 2: Gender and Race/Ethnicity of Film Reviewers Across 300 Top Films from 2015-2017

  • An examination of gender and race/ethnicity of film reviewers across the top 100 films each year from 2015-2017.

View previous reports