Since 2005, the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative has examined the prevalence and portrayal of female characters in entertainment. Although females represent 50% of the population and 50% of movie ticket buyers, they are still underrepresented in film. Annenberg Inclusion Initiative reports cover film, television, and digital content. We also conducted the first-ever global study on women and girls in films from 11 territories. Our reports include information on the parental and relational status of females and the hypersexualization of females. In certain studies, we also assess the occupations held by women, including the level of prestige or clout and how many females are shown working in STEM fields.

View our reports on gender on screen in entertainment below. For information on gender behind-the-scenes in entertainment, visit the Behind the Camera tab.

Yearly Reports on Gender in Music

2019: Inclusion in the Recording Studio?

  • Our second annual report on gender and race/ethnicity across 700 popular songs from 2012 to 2018. This year, we also feature qualitative interviews with 75 female songwriters and producers to explore the barriers facing women in the industry.

View previous reports:

2019: No Country for Female Artists

  • A research brief examining gender inclusion across the Year-End Billboard Hot Country charts from 2014 to 2018, and nominations for the last five years in four categories at the Academy of Country Music Awards.

Yearly Reports on Gender On-Screen in Film

2019: Inequality in 1,200 Popular Films

  • A research brief on gender and race/ethnicity among leading characters in the 100 top films each year from 2007 to 2018.

2018: Inequality in 1,100 Popular Films

  • Annual report on gender, race/ethnicity, LGBT status, and disability in film. Includes data on representation, hypersexualization, and employment patterns of females in popular films (2007-2017).

View previous reports:

Reports on Gender in Film, TV, and Digital Content (CARD report)

2014-15: PDF icon Inclusion or Invisibility? The Comprehensive Annenberg Report on Diversity (CARD)  (PDF icon Full Report)

  • Report examines film, television, and digital content. The study ranks companies based on inclusivity on screen and behind-the camera.

Reports on Specific Areas of Entertainment

2019: Increasing Inclusion in Animation

  • The study evaluated females on screen, behind the camera above and below the line across film and TV, and in the executive ranks at major animation companies. In addition, a qualitative investigation examined the reasons that limit women's access and opportunity in the industry. The study was conducted in partnership with Women in Animation.

Portrayal of Child and Teen Girls in Popular Film

2017: The Future is Female? 

  • A quantitative and qualitative analysis of how popular films depict elementary and teen girls. Funded by the Jacquelyn & Gregory Zehner Foundation and Ann Lovell.

Gender On-Screen in Academy-Award Nominated Films

2010: PDF icon Gender Representation 1977-2010

  • Females on screen and behind-the-camera in Best Picture nominees.

2006: PDF icon Gender Representation 1977-2006

  • Females on screen and behind-the-camera in Best Picture nominees.

Gender On-Screen in Family Films and Television

2014: PDF icon Gender Bias Without Borders (PDF icon Full Report)

  • An investigation of female characters in popular films from 11 countries. Report prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2012: PDF icon Gender Roles & Occupations in Film and Television

  • Representation on-screen and in various industries across family films, prime-time television, and children's shows. Prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2011: PDF icon Occupational Portrayals in G-Rated Films

  • A study prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media on gender roles and occupations in G-rated content.

2011: PDF icon Industry Leaders' Perceptions of Gender in Family Films

  • This study explores reasons for gender imbalance in family films through interviews with 108 industry leaders. Report prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2010: PDF icon Gender Disparity in Family Films

  • A study of G-, PG-, and PG-13-rated content, prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2008: PDF icon Gender Stereotypes in Popular Films and TV

  • Four studies of gender representation in film and television, including a qualitative analysis of protagonists in G-rated content. Report prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media

Gender and Computer Science On-Screen in Television and Film

2017: Cracking the Code: The Prevalence and Nature of Computer Science Depictions in Media

  • An investigation of how often computer science is depicted in popular films and five samples of television, and the prevalence and portrayal of females performing computer science. Report prepared for the Google CS in Media Team.

Gender of Film Critics

2018: Critic's Choice 2: Gender and Race/Ethnicity of Film Reviewers Across 300 Top Films from 2015-2017

  • An examination of gender and race/ethnicity of film reviewers across the top 100 films each year from 2015-2017.

View previous reports