The Annenberg Inclusion Initiative examines the proportion of characters from different racial/ethnic groups on screen in entertainment. Routinely, we find an on-screen underrepresentation of characters who are Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian or Asian American, Native American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Middle Eastern, or from other racial/ethnic backgrounds. In addition to prevalence of underrepresented characters, other attributes are analyzed, including parental and relational status and hypersexualization.
View our reports on race/ethnicity on screen in entertainment below. For information on race/ethnicity behind-the-scenes in entertainment, visit the Behind the Scenes tab.
API Representation in Film
- With Dr. Nancy Wang Yuen, the study includes an assessment of Asian and Pacific Islander (API) leads and speaking characters across 1,300 top-grossing films from 2007 to 2019. The report also includes a qualitative analysis of primary and secondary API characters from 2019’s most popular movies.
Hispanic/Latino Representation in Film
- The report examines top-grossing films from 2007 to 2019 to assess the prevalence and portrayal of Hispanic/Latinos on screen and as directors, producers, and casting directors. The study also includes a qualitative analysis on the presentation of Hispanic/Latino characters.
View previous reports:
- 2019: Latinos in Film
Race/Ethnicity in Music
- Our first report to examine the inclusion profile of the executive ranks across six categories of the music industry, artist race/ethnicity, and that of managers, agents, and publicists.
- Our fourth annual report on gender and race/ethnicity across 900 popular songs from 2012 to 2020 and 9 years of Grammy nominations in select categories.
View previous reports:
- Inclusion in the Recording Studio? (2020)
- Inclusion in the Recording Studio? (2019)--includes an analysis of qualitative interviews with 75 female songwriters and producers.
- Inclusion in the Recording Studio? (2018)
Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film
- A research brief on gender and race/ethnicity among leading characters in the 100 top films each year from 2007 to 2022
View previous briefs:
- Annual report on top-grossing film. Includes data on employment patterns of women (directors, writers, producers, composers, and casting directors) and hiring of Black, Asian, and Hispanic/Latino directors (2007-2022).
View previous reports:
- Inequality in 1,600 Popular Films (2023)
- Inequality in 1,300 Popular Films (2020)
- Inequality in 1,200 Popular Films (2019)
- Inequality in 1,100 Popular Films (2018)
- Inequality in 900 Popular Films (2016)
- Inequality in 800 Popular Films (2015)
- Inequality in 700 Popular Films (2014)
- Race/Ethnicity in 600 Popular Films (2013)
- Race/Ethnicity in 500 Popular Films (2012)
- Black Characters in Popular Film (2007-2008)
Inclusion in Netflix Series and Films
- The Initiative analyzed Netflix’s U.S. original live-action films (249) and series (297) from 2018 to 2021. The study examined on-screen inclusion across gender, race/ethnicity, LGBTQ+ and disability. Behind the camera, gender and race/ethnicity of key personnel were assessed. (Full Report)
Economic Performance of Films
- The report examines the economic performance of 1,200 top films from 2007 to 2018, using more than a dozen production, distribution, and exhibition factors that could influence economic performance domestically and internationally. A supplemental analysis of films with women of color in leading roles. The report was supported by ReFrame.
Reports on Race/Ethnicity On-Screen in Film, TV, Digital (The CARD Report)
- Report examines film, television, and digital content. The study ranks companies based on inclusivity on screen and behind-the camera.
Reports on Specific Areas of Entertainment
- The study was conducted in partnership with the Media Neuroscience Lab (MNL), University of California, Santa Barbara, and sponsored by Snap. The analysis is a multi-year, first-of-its-kind representation audit of English-language partnered content on Snapchat (content from traditional and digital native media partners). The team used a combination of computational methods and human assessors to understand how well gender, race/ethnicity, LGBTQ+, and disability were represented in Snapchat content.
Race/Ethnicity and Computer Science On-Screen in Television and Film
- An investigation of how often computer science is depicted in popular films and five samples of television, and the prevalence and portrayal of individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups performing computer science. Report prepared for the Google CS in Media Team.
Race/Ethnicity of Film Critics
- An examination of gender and race/ethnicity of film reviewers across the top 100 films each year from 2015-2017.
View previous reports