Since 2005, the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative has examined the prevalence and portrayal of female characters in entertainment. Although females represent 50% of the population and 50% of movie ticket buyers, they are still underrepresented in film. Annenberg Inclusion Initiative reports cover film, television, and digital content. We also conducted the first-ever global study on women and girls in films from 11 territories. Our reports include information on the parental and relational status of females and the hypersexualization of females. In certain studies, we also assess the occupations held by women, including the level of prestige or clout and how many females are shown working in STEM fields.

View our reports on gender on screen in entertainment below. For information on gender behind-the-scenes in entertainment, visit the Behind the Camera tab.

Gender in Music

2021: Inclusion in the Music Business: Gender & Race/Ethnicity Across Executives, Artists & Talent Teams

  • Our first report to examine the inclusion profile of the executive ranks across six categories of the music industry, artist race/ethnicity, and that of managers, agents, and publicists.

2021: Inclusion in the Recording Studio?

  • Our fourth annual report on gender and race/ethnicity across 900 popular songs from 2012 to 2020 and 9 years of Grammy nominations in select categories.

View previous reports:

2019: No Country for Female Artists

  • A research brief examining gender inclusion across the Year-End Billboard Hot Country charts from 2014 to 2018, and nominations for the last five years in four categories at the Academy of Country Music Awards.

Yearly Reports on Gender On-Screen in Film

2022: PDF icon Research Brief: Inequality in 1,600 Popular Films

  • A research brief on gender and race/ethnicity among leading characters in the 100 top films each year from 2007 to 2022

View previous briefs:

2022: Inequality Across 1,500 Popular Films

2022: PDF icon Inequality in 1,600 Popular Films

  • Annual report on top-grossing film. Includes data on employment patterns of women (directors, writers, producers, composers, and casting directors) and hiring of Black, Asian, and Hispanic/Latino directors (2007-2022).

View previous reports:

Inclusion in Netflix Series and Films

2023: Inclusion in Netflix Series and Films: 2018–2021

  • The Initiative analyzed Netflix’s U.S. original live-action films (249) and series (297) from 2018 to 2021. The study examined on-screen inclusion across gender, race/ethnicity, LGBTQ+ and disability. Behind the camera, gender and race/ethnicity of key personnel were assessed. (Full Report)

Economic Performance of Films

2020: The Ticket to Inclusion: Gender & Race/Ethnicity of Leads and Financial Performance Across 1,200 Popular Films

  • The report examines the economic performance of 1,200 top films from 2007 to 2018, using more than a dozen production, distribution, and exhibition factors that could influence economic performance domestically and internationally. A supplemental analysis of films with women of color in leading roles. The report was supported by ReFrame.

Reports on Gender in Film, TV, and Digital Content (CARD report)

2014-15: PDF icon Inclusion or Invisibility? The Comprehensive Annenberg Report on Diversity (CARD)  (PDF icon Full Report)

  • Report examines film, television, and digital content. The study ranks companies based on inclusivity on screen and behind-the camera.

Reports on Specific Areas of Entertainment

2019: Increasing Inclusion in Animation

  • The study evaluated females on screen, behind the camera above and below the line across film and TV, and in the executive ranks at major animation companies. In addition, a qualitative investigation examined the reasons that limit women’s access and opportunity in the industry. The study was conducted in partnership with Women in Animation.

2021: Invisible in Visual Effects

  • The study examined women working in visual effects across 400 top-grossing films from 2016 to 2019, focusing on overall prevalence and leadership credits. The study further explored women working in the executive ranks across 60 VFX companies. Finally, awards recognition for women was assessed. The report also includes a qualitative investigation, which consists of 82 in-depth interviews with women in VFX as well as industry decision-makers. The study was conducted in partnership with Women in Animation.

2023: PDF icon Exploring Inclusion in Snapchat Content

  • The study was conducted in partnership with the Media Neuroscience Lab (MNL), University of California, Santa Barbara, and sponsored by Snap. The analysis is a multi-year, first-of-its-kind representation audit of English-language partnered content on Snapchat (content from traditional and digital native media partners). The team used a combination of computational methods and human assessors to understand how well gender, race/ethnicity, LGBTQ+, and disability were represented in Snapchat content. 

Portrayal of Child and Teen Girls in Popular Film

2017: The Future is Female? 

  • A quantitative and qualitative analysis of how popular films depict elementary and teen girls. Funded by the Jacquelyn & Gregory Zehner Foundation and Ann Lovell.

Gender On-Screen in Academy-Award Nominated Films

2010: PDF icon Gender Representation 1977-2010

  • Females on screen and behind-the-camera in Best Picture nominees.

2006: PDF icon Gender Representation 1977-2006

  • Females on screen and behind-the-camera in Best Picture nominees.

Gender On-Screen in Family Films and Television

2014: PDF icon Gender Bias Without Borders (PDF icon Full Report)

  • An investigation of female characters in popular films from 11 countries. Report prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2012: PDF icon Gender Roles & Occupations in Film and Television

  • Representation on-screen and in various industries across family films, prime-time television, and children’s shows. Prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2011: PDF icon Occupational Portrayals in G-Rated Films

  • A study prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media on gender roles and occupations in G-rated content.

2011: PDF icon Industry Leaders' Perceptions of Gender in Family Films

  • This study explores reasons for gender imbalance in family films through interviews with 108 industry leaders. Report prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2010: PDF icon Gender Disparity in Family Films

  • A study of G-, PG-, and PG-13-rated content, prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media.

2008: PDF icon Gender Stereotypes in Popular Films and TV

  • Four studies of gender representation in film and television, including a qualitative analysis of protagonists in G-rated content. Report prepared for the Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media

Gender and Computer Science On-Screen in Television and Film

2017: Cracking the Code: The Prevalence and Nature of Computer Science Depictions in Media

  • An investigation of how often computer science is depicted in popular films and five samples of television, and the prevalence and portrayal of females performing computer science. Report prepared for the Google CS in Media Team.

Gender of Film Critics

2018: Critic's Choice 2: Gender and Race/Ethnicity of Film Reviewers Across 300 Top Films from 2015-2017

  • An examination of gender and race/ethnicity of film reviewers across the top 100 films each year from 2015-2017.

View previous reports